更换Ubuntu源为国内源的操作记录

我们都知道,Ubuntu的官方源对于国内用户来说是比较慢的,可以将它的源换成国内的源(比如阿里源),这样用起来就很快了。下面记录下更换操作:

首先了解下/etc/apt/sources.list文件

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1、文件/etc/apt/sources.list是一个普通可编辑的文本文件,保存了ubuntu软件更新的源服务器的地址。
2、和sources.list功能一样的是/etc/apt/sources.list.d/*.list(*代表一个文件名,只能由字母、数字、下划线、英文句号组成),该文件夹下的文件是第三方软件的源,可以分别存放不同的第三源地址,只需“扩展名”为list即可。
3、sources.list.d目录下的*.list文件为在单独文件中写入源的地址提供了一种方式,通常用来安装第三方的软件。
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如下是ubuntu官方sources.list文件内容:
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ trusty-backports main restricted universe multiverse

以上内容的具体含义如下:
1)每一行的开头是deb或者deb-src,分别表示直接通过.deb文件进行安装和通过源文件的方式进行安装。
2)deb或者deb-src字段之后,是一段URL,之后是五个用空格隔开的字符串,分别对应相应的目录结构。
在浏览器中输入http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/,并进入dists目录,可以发现有5个目录和前述sources.list文件中的第三列字段相对应。
任选其中一个目录进入,可以看到和sources.list后四列相对应的目录结构


以上官方的ubuntu源在国内使用,通常都会很慢,以至于在使用过程中报错。
----------------下面是我在线上使用过的一个ubuntu的源---------------------
root@ubuntutest03-KVM:~# cat /etc/apt/sources.list|grep -v "^#"|grep -v "^$"
deb http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted
deb http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted
deb http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial universe
deb http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates universe
deb http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial multiverse
deb http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates multiverse
deb http://cn.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-security main restricted
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-security universe
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-security multiverse

--------------下面是替换成阿里源的内容-------------
root@ubuntutest03-KVM:~# cat /etc/apt/sources.list
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse
##测试版源
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
# 源码
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse
##测试版源
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
# Canonical 合作伙伴和附加
deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu/ xenial partner
deb http://extras.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ xenial main

root@ubuntutest03-KVM:~# apt-get update 更新源
root@ubuntutest03-KVM:~# apt-get upgrade 更新软件


-------------更换成其他开放的ubuntu源,做法和上面同理----------------
再比如下面更换成网易源(打开文件中的url。进入dists目录下就能看到xenial等对应的目录结构了)
root@ubuntutest03-KVM:~# cat /etc/apt/sources.list
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ xenial universe
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates universe
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ xenial multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-security main restricted
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-security universe
deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial-security multiverse

root@ubuntutest03-KVM:~# apt-get update 更新源
root@ubuntutest03-KVM:~# apt-get upgrade 更新软件
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